The Vertical Olive Crushing Mill as a Machine and its Energy Balance - A Preliminary Approach

Antonis G. Katsarakis (GR)
The vertical crushing mill turns the olives into pulp by combining the rotational and rolling motion of a heavy upright stone wheel that moves with continuous contact along a circular horizontal trajectory on a stationary base which forms the system's frame of reference. It was devised during the Hellenistic period and served as one of the most important and impressive means of production in the pre-industrial...

Experiments on Possible Stone Age Glue Types

Werner Pfeifer and
Marco Claußen (DE)
These experiments cover the making and testing of several possible glue types that might have been used in the hunter and gatherer period of the European Stone Age. Glue types produced in these experiments are: 1. Birch bark tar and pitch, 2. Pine wood tar and pitch, 3. Pine resin / wax glue, 4. Pine resin / wax / charcoal glue, 5. Hide glue and 6. Blue Bell glue...