Peat Burns: The Methods and Implications of Peat Charcoaling

Paul M. Jack 1
Publication Date
The Northern Isles of Scotland offer a fascinating case study for understanding past economies and resource management due to the comparative lack of trees found elsewhere in the British Isles. Archaeological evidence proves that this environment did not prevent the development of industrial pursuits in this region during the Iron Age and local accounts dating to ...

Experiments with Lime Mortars containing Charcoal and Ashes

Αntonis Vlavogilakis 1
Publication Date


While researching ancient lime mortar technology, we encountered a number of cases in published archaeological studies that refer to the use of ashes and charcoal as aggregates in mixtures. These mixtures were tested in a small number of experiments, and this paper presents the results.


Fuel made of black carbon formed by heating wood without air.
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary

From the Soil to the Iron Product - the Technology of Medieval Iron Smelting

Adam Thiele 1
Publication Date
2013 EXARC meeting at Csiki Pihenökert (HU)
***Nowadays, the development of technology rushes past the people of the machine-based technical civilisation, therefore they fail to understand the technological wonders that surround them. One of these is the ancient technology of iron smelting...