iron

Smelting Conditions and Smelting Products: Experimental Insights into the Development of Iron Bloomery Furnaces

Y. Marks,
N. Groat,
L. O. Lortie,
M. Hughes,
H. F. Thompson,
C. J. Woodland,
T. MS Adams,
T. Thorpe,
B. Tang,
R. Kenyon,
B. Langhorne and
J. Fraser-Darling
The material record for bloomery furnaces in Iron Age and Roman Britain is fragmentary and, because of this paucity of evidence, the reconstruction of the ceramic structures used in iron production is difficult. Experiments have nevertheless been carried out to ...

Replica of the Knife 2165 found in Flixborough a Late Anglo-Saxon Period Knife with an Inlay of Twisted Bronze and Silver Wires

Mauro Fiorentini (IT)
This work aims to show the reconstruction of a medieval era knife that was found in Flixborough, Lincolnshire (UK). Flixborough’s Anglo-Saxon cemetery has returned a total of 11 knives that can be dated between the 8th and the 10th century AD. The specimen discussed here is known as Knife 2165 and was found in context 3417 of the site. This knife is the smallest of the inlaid knives found in Flixborough...

Experimental Analysis of Metal Points from Quattro Macine: Reproduction and Interpretation

Ruben Cataldo (IT)
This paper relates to a study of experimental archaeology, executed by Ruben Cataldo, about the forging methods used to produce some replicas of two metal points found during the archaeological excavations carried out between 1992 and 1996 by the University of Salento in the medieval village Quattro Macine (translated Four Millstones), located in the municipality of Giuggianello, a small town in...

Museo de la Mineria del Pais Vasco (ES)

Member of EXARC
Yes

Mining Museum of the Basque Country - Archaeological survey along all the Basque Country to locate “ferrerias de monte”. Selected archaeological digs. Reconstruction of a medieval iron workshop due to realize public demonstrations for experimental archaeometallurgy congresses, schools and general public.

Mining Museum of the Basque Country - Archaeological survey along all the Basque Country to locate “ferrerias de monte”. Selected archaeological digs. Reconstruction of a medieval iron workshop due to realize public demonstrations for experimental archaeometallurgy congresses, schools and general public...

Bloom

A bloomery is a type of furnace once widely used for smelting iron from its oxides. A bloomery's product is a porous mass of iron and slag called a bloom.

Iron

Hard silvery-white magnetic metal (Fe).

Book Review: Accidental and Experimental Archaeometallurgy by D. Dungworth and R. Doonan (Eds)

Dave Budd (UK)
Spawned from an HMS (Historical Metallurgy Society) conference at West Dean College in 2010, this book is a unique compilation of papers written by both academics and craftsmen. Further articles not directly drawn from the conference have been included and cover non-ferrous experiments and an ethnographic study of blacksmithing...

From the Soil to the Iron Product - the Technology of Medieval Iron Smelting

Adam Thiele (HU)
2013 EXARC meeting at Csiki Pihenökert (HU)
***Nowadays, the development of technology rushes past the people of the machine-based technical civilisation, therefore they fail to understand the technological wonders that surround them. One of these is the ancient technology of iron smelting...

Event Review: 1st Bloomery Seminar, Starachowice 2013

A. Przychodni and
A. Wrona (PL)
The Bloomery Seminar, held on the 5 - 6 October 2013 at the Museum of Nature and Technology in Starachowice, was organised to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the birth of Professor Wacław Różański. During the event two experiments were conducted, one of which was fully traced and discussed with the smelters who carried out the process...

The Production of High Carbon Steel Directly in Bloomery Process: Theoretical Bases and Metallographic Analyses of the Experiments Results

Adrian Wrona (PL)
7th UK EA Conference Cardiff 2013
***The series of experiment on iron smelting conducted by author in 2012 resulted in very good quality high carbon steel produced directly in the bloomery furnace. Bearing in mind the unusual mechanism of carburization in a 'Aristotle furnace', a question arose concerning possibility of...