copper

Experimental Archaeometallurgy of Early-Middle Bronze Age Cyprus: Pilot Experiments of Copper Smelting at Pyrgos-Mavroraki

Marco Romeo Pitone (UK)
10th EAC Leiden 2017
***Pyrgos-Mavroraki, an early 2nd millennium BC proto-industrial settlement, is an excellent case-study on which to apply experimental archaeometallurgy because it presents many different elements connected to the chaine-operatoire of copper metallurgy, typical of Early/Middle Bronze Age Cyprus...

An Experimental Diachronic Exploration of Patination Methodology of Dark Patinated (Arsenical) Copper Alloys on Case Studies from the Eastern Mediterranean Bronze Age and Early Iron Age

Marianne Talma (DE)
10th EAC Leiden 2017
***Artificially patinated copper alloys are found archaeologically in polychrome artefacts from the 19th century BC Egypt to historical and contemporary Japan. The unusual colour variations observed in these patinas, ranging from black to blue to purple, is due to a minor amount of gold (Au) and silver (Ag) in their copper matrix, whereas...

Book Review: Experimentelle Archäologie in Europa, Bilanz 2015

Michaela Seidel-Gibbons (US)
Annual Proceedings of the EXAR Tagung
***Volume number 14 of the periodical “Experimentelle Archäologie in Europa: Bilanz 2015” represents the proceedings of the 11th meeting of EXAR held in cooperation with the Labor für Experimentelle Archäologie (LEA), a branch of the Römisch-Germanischen-Zentralmuseums in Mainz (RGZM)...

The Colour Palette of Antique Bronzes: An Experimental Archaeology Project

Jonathan Devogelaere (FR)
Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin, with lead also added. Hellenistic and Roman bronze objects have a variable percentage of metals, and because of this the colour of the alloy will differ depending on the proportions. The colour of the alloy can be maintained by polishing, but it is also possible to give a patina to the surface of bronze using a reagent...

Copper

A soft reddish-brown metal (Cu).

Book Review: Experimentelle Archäologie in Europa, Bilanz 2012

Thijs Hofland (NL)
Annual Proceedings of the EXAR Tagung
***According to James Mathieu in 2002, experimental archaeology is “A subfield of archaeological research which employs a number of different methods, techniques, analyses and approaches within the context of a controllable imitative experiment to replicate past phenomena...

Copper + Tin + People: Public Co-Smelting Experimentation in Northwestern Iberia

Aaron Lackinger (ES)
7th UK EA Conference Cardiff 2013
***In the present paper an experiment made in north-western Iberia for producing bronze using local ores and similar techniques to those perhaps practiced by the ancient prehistoric metallurgists during Bronze Age is described...

Anatomy of Prehispanic Bells - Study of an Ancient Lost Process

Raúl Ybarra (MX)

The elaboration of bells in the Prehispanic Era was of great importance due to the special meaning attributed to them in religious ceremonies. Today, knowledge of the techniques that were used in their fabrication is scant and lacking in detail. For that reason, the objective of the present study was to carry out a morphological study of bells from western Mexico...