Individual Members

Elpidia Giovanna Fregni PhD

Member of EXARC since
Northern Cyprus

I am an independent researcher with a specialisation in non-ferrous metals with a practical background in jewellery making and metalsmithing. My research ranges from smelting ores and exploring early technology, to replicating metalworking techniques from the Bronze Age through Medieval Period. My greatest passion however, is replicating hammers, anvils, and other tools and using those to better understand metalworking technology in antiquity. My PhD thesis, The Complete Metalsmith: Craft and Technology in the British Bronze Age, explores these tools, their contexts, and the use of experimental archaeology in the interpretation of wear.

I conduct workshops and talks in Europe, the UK, and US and often speak at conferences about experimental archaeology. My website, Ancient Tools and Craft: Exploring Ancient Technology through Experimental Archaeology ( contains information about events, reviews, and tutorials for making tools and equipment for use in experimental archaeology.